Happy Heralds, Inc
CREATIVE BIBLE EXPOSITION
ESSENTIAL ATTITUDES FOR
Studies In The Epistle to
Dr. Fred Wittman
TABLE OF CONTENTS
OUTLINE OF THE LESSON SERIES . . . . . . . . . 1
1. Introduction to Philippians (1:1,2) . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2. The Need for Confidence in Prayer . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3. The Need for Confidence in Proclamation of The Gospel (1:12-30). . . . 20
4. The Need for Humility in Disposition (2:1-11) . . . . . . . . 32
5. How There Can Be Joy in Usefulness (2:12-18) . . . . . . . . 41
6. The Need for Responsibility in Service (2:19-30) . . . . . . . 50
7. The Need for Persistence in Devotion (3:1-16) . . . . . . . . 58
8. The Need for the Anticipation of Glory (3:17-21) . . . . . . . 65
9. The Need for Faithfulness in The Lord (4:1-3) . . . . . . . . 74
10. How There can Be Peacefulness through Prayer (4:4-7) . . . . . 83
11. The Need for Thoughtfulness in Purity (4:8.9). . . . . . . . . 90
12. The Need for Gratefulness (4:10-20). . . . . . . . . . 100
13. Conclusion: The Need To Be Gregarious (4:21-23). . . . . . 108
BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
OUTLINE OF LESSON SERIES
LESSON 1: INTRODUCTION TO PHILIPPIANS (1:1,2).
I. The Preliminary to The Epistle.
A. Background of The Book.
1. The city of Philippi.
2. The church at Philippi.
3. The setting of Philippians.
B. Purpose of Writing.
II. The Panorama of Philippians.
III. The Prelude of Philippians.
A. The Writer (1).
B. The Recipients (2).
C. The Regards (3).
LESSON 2: THE NEED FOR CONFIDENCE IN PRAYER (1:3-11).
I. The Reasons for Confidence (1:3-8).
A. Expression of Gratitude for Fellowship (3-5).
1. A thankful heart.
2. A fond remembrance.
3. A joyful fellowship.
B. Expectation of The God to Finish His Work (6).
1. Confident that The God will finish His work.
2. Confident when The God will finish His work.
C. Establishment of the Gospel Firmly (7).
1. They partook of this grace.
2. They persisted in his gospel.
3. They persevered in fellowship.
D. Exhibition of Deep Concern and Affection (8).
II. His Requests in Confidence (1:9-11).
A. That Love, Knowledge, and Discernment May Abound (9).
B. That They May Test and Choose The Best (10a).
C. That They May Be Sincere, Blameless, and Fruitful (10b,11).
LESSON 3; THE NEED FOR CONFIDENCE IN PROCLAIMING THE GOSPEL
I. Relate The Progress of The Gospel (12-14).
A. Paul’s Bonds Furthered The Gospel (12,13).
B. Paul’s Bonds Encouraged Boldness (14).
II. Rejoice in The Preaching of The Gospel (15-18).
A. Two Factions Preached Christ (15-17).
B. Paul Rejoiced That Christ Was Preached (18).
III. Reflect Persuasion to Glorify Christ (19-26).
A. Confident Anticipation of Freedom (19,20a).
B. Confident Aspiration to Glorify Christ (20b-24).
C. Confident Affirmation of Renewed Ministry (25,26).
IV. Reiterate Partnership in The Gospel (27-20).
A. Partners in The Fight (27).
B. Partners in Fearlessness (28).
C. Partners in Affliction (29,30).
LESSON 4: THE NEED FOR HUMILITY IN DISPOSITION (2:1-11).
I. The Premise for Humility Expressed (12).
A. Four Conditions Predispose Humility (1).
B. Unity Relates to Humility (2).
II. The Proposition for Humility Extended (2-4).
A. Joy Consumated by Their Unity (2).
B. Consider Others in Humility (3).
C. Care for Others’ Interests First (4).
III. The Perfect Example of Humility Presented (5-11).
A. Christ's Seven Steps Down in Humility (5-8).
B. The God Exalted Christ after Humility (9-11).
C. The Result of Humility And Exaltation (11).
LESSON 5: HOW THERE CAN BE JOY IN USEFULNESS (2:12-18).
I. The Requirements for Usefulness (12-14).
A. A Corporate Effort (12,13).
B. Abstinence from Grumbling (14).
II. The Reason for Such Requirements (15-17a).
A. Shining as Lights (15,16).
B. Self-Sacrifice and Service (16).
III. The Results of Usefulness (16b,17b,18).
A. Rejoicing in The Day of Christ (16b).
B. Joy and Rejoicing Today (17b,18).
LESSON 6: THE NEED FOR RESPONSIBILITY IN SERVICE (2:19-30).
I. The Responsibility of Timothy Attested (19-23).
A. A Trusted, Model Servant of Christ (19-21).
B. A Proven Son in The Service of Christ (22).
C. Soon to Be Sent to Serve Them in Christ (23).
II. The Intended Return of Paul Alluded (24).
III. The Responsibility of Epaphroditus Affirmed (25-30).
A. A Trusted Model Messenger of Christ (25).
B. A Concerned Dedicated Beloved Brother in Christ (26-28).
C. A Concern to Esteem a Brother in Christ (29,30).
LESSON 7: THE NEED FOR PERSISTENCE IN DEVOTION (3:1-16).
I. Two Extremes of Devotion (1-3).
A. Guiding Declaration (1).
B. Ungodly Devotion (2).
C. Godly Devotion (3).
II. Two Examples of Devotion (4-12).
A. Wrongfully Persistent Devotion (4-6).
B. Righteously Persistent Devotion (7-14).
1. Profit and loss (7-9).
2. Purpose and goal (10-14)
III. Two Exhortations to Devotion (15,16).
A. Keep Your Mind Focused (15).
B. Keep Walking Straight (16).
LESSON 8: THE NEED FOR THE ANTICIPATION OF GLORY (3:17-21).
I. Recognize Possessors and Professors (17,18).
A. Closely Reduplicate Paul’s Character (17a).
B. Carefully Regard the Possessors Who Do (17b).
C. Constantly Reject the Professors Who Don’t (18).
II. Professors Anticipate Shameful Glory (18,19).
A. Their Enmity (18,19a).
1. Enmity with The God (18).
2. Enemies of possessors (18).
3. End in destruction (19a).
B. Their Intent (19b).
1. Their god (19b).
2. Their glory (19c).
3. Their goal (19d).
III. Possessors Anticipate Splendorous Glory (20,21).
A. Heavenly Commonwealth (20).
1. Our Citizenship in Heaven (20a).
2. Our Saviour from Heaven (20b).
B. Hopeful Conformity (21).
1. The bodies of saints (21a).
2. The universe subdued (21b).
LESSON 9: THE NEED FOR FAITHFULNESS IN THE LORD (4:1-3).
I. Faithfulness in The Lord Exhorted (1).
A. The Significance of Endearing Terms (1a).
B. The Scope of Standing Firm (1b).
II. Unity in The Lord Exhorted (2).
A. What Does the Exhortation Imply?
B. What Does the Exhortation Implore?
III. Assistance in Faithfulness Entreated (3)
A. Who is Entreated?
B. What is Entreated?
LESSON 10: HOW THERE CAN BE PEACEFULNESS THROUGH PRAYER (4:4-7).
I. Three Steps to Perfect Peace (4-6).
A. Rejoice in The Lord (4).
1. What is rejoicing in The Lord?
2. Why is the exhortation repeated?
B. Demonstrate Yieldedness (5).
1. How is this yieldedness demonstrated?
2. Why is this yieldedness demonstrated?
C. Pray with Thanksgiving (6).
1. Be anxious over nothing!
2. Pray about everything.
3. Give thanks for anything.
II. True Security through Perfect Peace (7).
A. Perfect Peace Defies Description.
1. It is the possession of The God.
2. It surpasses all understanding.
B. Perfect Peace Defies Disturbance.
1. By guilt.
2. By concern.
C. Perfect Peace Depends upon Christ.
LESSON 11: THE NEED FOR THOUGHTFULNESS IN PURITY (4:8,9).
I. Continually Reckon in Purity (8).
A. Six General Categories of Thought.
B. Excellence and Praise.
II. Continually Practice the Exemplified (9a).
A. Things Learned from Paul.
B. Things Received from Paul.
C. Things Heard from Paul.
D. Things Seen of Paul.
III. The Certain Result: The Presence of The God (9b).
LESSON 12: THE NEED FOR GRATEFULNESS (4:10-20).
I. Grateful for Renewed Care (10-14).
A. A Generous Gift (10).
B. A Gracious Attitude (11-13).
1. Satisfied in all circumstances.
2. Strengthened in all things.
C. A Genuine Acclamation (14).
II. Grateful For Regular Fellowship (15,16).
A. He Declared Their Faithful Fellowship (15,16).
1 When he left Macedonia (15).
2. While he was in Thessalonica (16).
B. He Desired Fruit Reckoned to their Account (17).
C. He Delighted Fully in their Sacrificial Giving (18).
III. Glorious Riches of The God (19).
A. According to The God’s Riches in Glory.
B. Because of Christ Jesus.
IV. Grateful Glory Rendered to The God (20).
A. Gratefulness Reflected.
B. Glory Rendered.
LESSON 13: CONCLUSION: THE NEED TO BE GREGARIOUS (4:21-23).
I. In Relating Greetings (21,22).
A. Impartial Regards (21).
B. Impressive Regards (22).
II. With Respect to Grace (23).
A. Benediction--Invocation of The God’s Blessing.
B. Benefaction--Intention of The God’s Bounty.
III. Reviewing the Attitudes.
A. Confidence in Prayer.
B. Confidence in Proclaiming The Gospel.
C. Humility in Disposition.
D. Joy in Usefulness.
E. Responsibility in Service.
F. Persistence in Devotion.
G. Anticipation of Glory.
H. Faithfulness in The Lord.
I. Peacefulness Through Prayer.
J. Thoughtfulness in Purity.
K. Gratefulness Always.
L. The Need to Be Gregarious.
AUTHOR’S TRANSLATION OF THE EPISTLE TO PHILIPPIANS BY PAUL THE APOSTLE
A PRECISE TRANSLATION
1Paul and Timothy, bondslaves of Jesus Christ, to all the saints in Christ Jesus, |namely| the+ ones being at Philippi[Féeleeppoi], together with overseers[bishops] and deacons. 2Grace to you& and peace from God our Father and 0Lord Jesus Christ!
3I give thanks to The God of mine upon every /memory of you&, 4all the time in every supplication of mine in behalf of you& all, while making supplication with joy, 5for your& /fellowship in The Gospel from 0first day until the now; 6standing persuaded of this very[same] thing, that The+ One |Who| commenced a beneficially good work in you& shall perfectly accomplish |it| until 0Day of Jesus Christ, 7according as it is just~ for me to mind this concerning you& all, on account of the fact of me having you& in my heart both in my /bonds and in the answer in defense and verification of The Gospel , you& all |are| being my fellow partakers of the grace. 8For The God is my judicial witness, how I long for you& all with Jesus Christ’s inner, tender-affectionate-yearnings.
9And this I continually pray, that the love[sovereign preference for another over self and others] of yours& continually be abundant yet more and more by means of full knowledge[from experience] and in all discernment, 10in order for you& to test and approve the things continually being of superior worth, so that you& be lucid[clear and unadulterated] and unoffending ones unto 0Day of Christ, 11standing fully filled ones with fruits of righteousness which |are| through Jesus Christ for the purpose of 0God’s 0glory and acclamation. 12Now I desirously will for you& to know[from experience], O brothers, that the~ things against me have come rather for furtherance of The Gospel 13so that my /bonds in Christ became conspicuous among the whole Praitorion[mperial palace] and to all the remaining ones. 14And with reference to the majority of the brothers in 0Lord, standing persuaded+ by means of my /bonds, it is daring more exceedingly boldly to speak The Word fearlessly.
15On the one hand, some even because of envy and contention, but on the other hand, some also because of delight as an herald proclaim The Christ. 16On the one hand, the ones proclaim Christ everywhere out of strife, not purely, because |they| imagine to bring affliction to bear upon my /bonds. 17But on the other hand, the ones out of love because |they| perceive that I am destined for an answer in 0defense of The Gospel . 18For what |does it matter|? Save that by every means whether in pretence, whether in Truth, Christ is proclaimed everywhere. And in this I am rejoicing, but undoubtedly I shall also continue rejoicing in myself. 19For I perceive that this will eventuate for salvation to me through your& /supplication and abundant supply of The Spirit of Jesus Christ, 20according to my /strained[with the head stretched out], earnest expectancy and hope that in not one~ thing shall I be ashamed, but on the contrary with all boldness, as always, also now, whether through absolute life, whether through death, Christ shall be magnified in my /body. 21For to me to absolutely live, Christ! and the act of dying, gain! 22But if (and it is true) the process of absolutely living in 0flesh, this for me |is| work’s fruit. And what I shall choose for myself I am not making known. 23For I am restricted on the two |sides|, having the earnest desire in order to take departure and to be together with Christ which is very[rather more] much better. 24In fact the process of remaining on in the flesh |is| more essential for the sake of you&. And since standing persuaded with reference to this, I perceive that I shall remain and I shall abide alongside together with you& all for the progress and joy of yours& with reference to the faith in order that your& /basis for jubilating in Christ Jesus be in abundance in me through my own /coming presence to[the face of] you& again.
27Only continually conduct life as citizens of The Gospel of The Christ worthily! so that whether coming and beholding you&, whether being absent, I hear the~ things concerning you&, that you& continue standing fast in one spirit with one soul struggling together for the faith of The Gospel 28and not being terrorized ones in any[not one] one~ thing by the ones diametrically opposing, whichever is: on the one hand to them exemplification of utter destruction, but on the other hand to you& of Salvation and this~ by God. 29Because to you& it has been graciously granted this in behalf of The Christ, not only the process of committing trust unto Him, but on the contrary also the process of suffering in behalf of Him, 30having the same conflict of what sort you& beheld in me and now you& hear |to be| in me.
1Therefore if (and it is true) any^ comfort^ |be| in 0Christ, if (and it is true) any tender consoling by love[sovereign preference for another over self and others], if (and it is true) any fellowship of 0Spirit, if (and it is true) any inner, tender-affectionate-yearning and compassions, 2fully fulfill my /joy! so that you& continually mind the same~ thing and continually have the same love, joined souls, ones continually minding the one~ thing, 3not one~ thing |done| according to strife or vainglory, but[on the contrary] with /humble-mindedness, ones deeming one another superior ones to themselves. 4You& (all), each one stop paying close attention to the~ things of themselves, but on the contrary each one also |be paying close attention to| the~ things of others[different kind]! 5For this is to be continually minded in you& which also |is| in Christ Jesus, 6Who, while continuously existing in 0form of 0God, did not deem the process of being equal with 0God seizure[plunder]. 7On the contrary He emptied[of glory] Himself by taking a bondslave’s 0form when becoming in similitude to humans and, since being found in fashion as a human, He humbled Himself and became obedient til death, in fact a cross-death. 9Wherefore also The God supremely exalted Him and graciously granted to Him a name, |namely| the~ one above every name, 10in order that at the name of Jesus every knee, of: celestial ones and earthly ones and subterranean[under dust] ones, bend in veneration 11and every tongue of itself publicly confess, ‘‘Jesus Christ, Lord!’’ unto 0Father-God’s glory[exaltation with majestic radiant splendor].
12So that, my beloved ones, according as you& obeyed all the time, not as in my /coming presence only, but[on the contrary] now much more[rather] in my /absence, continually perform the salvation of yourselves& [in company]with fear and trembling! 13For The God is the One+ continually effectively working among you& both the process of determinedly willing and the process of effectively working in behalf of His[article as pronoun] delight. Continually do all things apart from murmurings and reasonings 15in order that you& become blameless and absolutely unmixed[free of foreign substance] ones, children[relational emphasis] of God without rebuke in midst of a crooked and standing distorted generation, among whom you& shine[appear] as luminaries in 0world 16persistently holding up 0Absolute Life’s Word in order for a basis for jubilating for me in Christ’s Day that, I did not run in vain, neither did I weary in labor in vain. 17On the contrary, if (and it is true) I also continually pour out myself as a drink offering upon the sacrifice and public ministry of the faith of yours&, I continually rejoice and I keep rejoicing together with you& all. 18In fact the same~ also do you& yourselves rejoice and you& keep rejoicing together with me.
19Now I hope in 0Lord Jesus to send Timothy to you& hastily in order that I myself, when ascertaining[know from experience] the~ things concerning you& also be heartened[well-souled]. 20For I have not one equal-souled+ one whoever will be naturally[legitimately] anxious about the~ things concerning you&. 21For all the ones are continually seeking the~ things of themselves, not the~ things of The Christ, Jesus. 22But you& know[from experience] the tested proof of him, that as a child~ with father he served as a bondslave together with me in The Gospel. 22Therefore on the one hand, I hope to send this+ one promptly[out of the same |hour|], when ever I distinctly behold |how| the~ things concerning me |will go|. 24But on the other hand I stand persuaded in 0Lord that I also myself shall come hastily. 25Now I deemed |it| essential to send to[the face of] you& Ehpah-fróhdeetohs, the brother and fellow worker and fellow soldier of mine, but your& apostle and public minister to my /need. 26inasmuch as he was continually longing for you& all and kept being sorely troubled for the reason that you& heard that he became chronically infirm. 27For in fact he became chronically infirm nearly to death, but on the contrary The God was merciful to him, but not |to| him only, on the contrary, also |to| me lest I have sorrow upon sorrow. 28Therefore I sent him most diligently in order that when beholding him again, you& rejoice and I myself be without sorrow. 29Therefore favorably welcome him in 0Lord [in company]with all joy. And have[hold] the such like+ ones held dear in precious value and esteem[with tender affection]! 30because on account of the work of The Christ he drew near til death, since hazarding his natural life[soul] in order to fully fill up the lack of your& /public ministry to[the face of] me.
1Furthermore[the remaining]], O my brothers, continually rejoice in 0Lord! To write the same~ things to you&, on the one hand for me |is| not tedious[dull] but on the other hand for you& |it is| surety. Constantly beware[to look] of the dogs! 2Constantly beware[to look] of the evil workers! Constantly beware[to look] of the mutilation! 3For we ourselves are the circumcision, |namely| the+ ones Constantly sacredly serving God in 0Spirit and continually jubilating in Christ Jesus and not standing persuaded in 0flesh 3For we ourselves are the circumcision, |namely| the+ ones continually serving God in 0Spirit and continually jubilating in Christ Jesus and are not standing persuaded in 0 flesh. 4even though I[myself] am having persuasion also in 0flesh. If (and it is true) any other+[same kind] one supposes to stand persuaded in 0flesh, myself more: 5an eighth-day circumcision; of[source] Israel’s race; of Benjamin’s tribe; a Hebrew of[source] Hebrews; according to the law, a Pharisee; 6with reference to zeal, persecuting the Church, with reference to righteousness, |namely| the one by means of 0law, one become blameless+.
7But[on the contrary] whatever~ things were gains to me, I have deemed these~ loss for the sake of The Christ. 8On the contrary, yes indeed rather I also continually deem all things to be loss for the sake of the continual surpassingness of the knowledge[from experience] of Christ Jesus The Lord of mine, for the sake of Whom I forfeited[suffered the loss] all~ things and I continue deeming |them| to be dung& in order that I continue gaining Christ 9and I continually be found in Him, not having my own righteousness^, |namely| the^ one by means of 0law, but on the contrary, the^ one through Christ’s faith, the righteousness out of[source] God on the basis of the faith, 10in order to know[from experience] Him and the miraculous power of His /resurrection and the fellowship of His /sufferings, being persistently conformed to His /death 11if (and assume it is true) by any means I attain unto the better resurrection out of the dead ones. 12Not that I already received or already have been perfectly completed, but I persistently pursue if (and it is true) I appropriate also on the basis of which I also was appropriated by The Christ, Jesus. 13O brothers, I myself do not reckon myself to have appropriated. But one~ thing: on the one hand the~ things in back of |me|, are being forgotten; but on the other hand extending myself farther toward the~ things in front[the face of] of |me|. 14According to 0goal, I keep on pursuing upon the prize[award for victory] of the vocation above from The God in Christ Jesus. 15Therefore let[hortatory subjunctive] us, as many as are completely mature ones, continually mind this~! And if (and it is true) you& are anything otherwise minded, The God will reveal even this~ to you&. 16Nevertheless unto what we advanced, continually walk orderly in file in the sphere of the same rule of conduct! Continually mind the same~ thing!
17O brothers, become imitators together of me! And pay close attention to the ones persistently walking thus, according as you& continually have us as a pattern[type]. 18For many, whom I told you& many times, but now I tell you& even weeping loudly, are walking as the enemies of the cross of The Christ! 19The end of whom, utter destruction! The god of whom, the belly! And their glory[majestic radiant splendor] in the shame of theirs! The ones continually minding earthly~ things!
20For the commonwealth of our citizenship exists in 0Heavens, out of which also we eagerly await in expectation for 0Savior, 0Lord Jesus Christ, 21Who shall alter the outward appearance of the body of /humiliation of ours in order for itself to become conformed~ to the body of the glory[majestic radiant splendor] of His according to the effectual working of the miraculous power with the result, for Him to be able also to subject[arrange under] the all~ things to Himself.
1So that, O my beloved and longed for brothers, my joy and victor’s crown, so continually stand fast in 0Lord, O beloved ones! 2I entreat Euohdéeah^ and I entreat Soontóokhay^, Continually mind the same~ thing in 0Lord!” 3And I ask you& also, O legitimate yokefellow, take hold together with these^, whoever^ struggled[in contest] together with me in The Gospel! [in company]with Kláymays also and the remaining fellow workers of mine, whose /names |are| in Absolute Life’s 0Book[Volume]. 4Continually rejoice in 0Lord all the time! Again I shall say, Continually rejoice! 5Your& /reasonable quality is to be known to all humans! The Lord |is| near! 6Stop being anxious about one~ thing! But on the contrary, in everything by means of /prayer and /supplication [in company]with thanksgiving your& petitions are to be made known to The God! 7And the peace of The God, |namely| the^ one surpassing all comprehension as by a garrison shall protect your& /hearts and your& thoughts in the sphere of Christ Jesus.
8Furthermore, O brothers, as many~ things as are true~, as many~ things as |are| gravely dignified~, as many~ things as |are| righteous~, as many~ things as |are| pure~, as many~ things as |are| lovely~[attracting fondness to the face of], as many~ things as |are| commending~[giving complimentary approval of], if (and it is true) any virtue[moral excellence, standard of living that conforms to the character of The Christ], and if (and it is true) any expression[acclamation] of hearty approval, continually reckon with reference to these~ things! 9What~ things you& both learned[to be. trained intimately as a disciple] and [you]accepted[with the mind] alongside and [you]heard and [you]beheld in me, continually practice these~ things! And The God of the peace shall be [in company]with you&. 10But I rejoiced in 0Lord greatly because once at last you flourished again, with reference to the process of minding in behalf of me, for whom you& also were continually minding, but you& were being without opportunity. 11Not that I am speaking[saying] in respect to deficiency; for I myself learned[by practice, to be trained intimately as a disciple], in what& |ever circumstances| I am, to be content[self-sufficient]. 12I am aware also to be humbled repeatedly and I am aware to be in abundance repeatedly. In everything and in all places I have learned[by practice, to be trained intimately as a disciple] the secret[by initiation] both to be satisfied with food and to be hungry, both to be abounding and to be lacking[deficient]. 13With reference to all~ things I prevail by means of Christ Who keeps empowering me. 14Nevertheless you& did well by means of fellowshipping together with my /affliction[tribulation]. 15Now O Philippians, you& also yourselves are aware that in The Gospel’s 0beginning[in Europe], when I departed away from Mahk-ehdoh-néeah, not one church fellowshipped with me in an account of giving and of receiving except yourselves only. 16Because even in Thehs-sahloh-néekay even once, in fact[emphatic use] twice, you& sent unto my /need. 17Not that I am anxiously seeking the gift, but on the contrary, I am anxiously seeking the fruit which keeps abounding unto your& /account. 18Now I am receiving in full all~ things and I am in abundance. I stand fully filled since |I| hospitably received from alongside of Ehpah-fróhdeetohs the~ things from alongside you&, an odor of sweet-fragrance, an accepted sacrifice, well-pleasing to The God. 19Now The God of mine shall fully fulfill your& every need according to His /wealth in glory[exaltation with majestic radiant splendor] by means of Christ Jesus. 20Now to The God and Father of ours |be| the glory[exaltation with majestic radiant splendor] for ever and evermore! Amen!
21Greet every saint in Christ Jesus! The brothers together with me greet you&. 22All the saints greet you&, but especially the+ ones of the Kaísahr’s dwelling. 23The grace of The Lord of ours, Jesus Christ |be| with you& all. Amen!
| | understood $singular &plural /the 0no article +masculine ~neuter
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