Thehssahlohnéekay , modern Salonika, (originally called Therma) is situated on the Gulf of Salonika, a major city in the province of Mahkehdohnée-ah, Greece. It had a population of 70,000 and a synagogue of Jews.
The writer of this Epistle was also the Apostle Paul, whom God chose to replace Judas Iscariot and to be the Apostle to the Gentiles (see Introductory Notes on First Epistle to The Thessalonians, p. 538). Paul is the writer of 14 New Testament Books. Séelahs (Silas) also called Seelouahnóhs, who accompanied Paul on his second mission trip, and Timothy were included as corroborators of this Epistle.
Internal evidence to Paul’s authorship is clear by his opening salutation in which he identifies himself (1:1) and by his salutation in his own handwriting, a token that it originated with Paul (3:17). Both of these are part of the text which the doctrine of verbal plenary inspiration authenticates.
External evidence Although most critics accept the authenticity and dating of First Thessalonians, authorship, dating, and readership of Second Thessalonians comes into question. Post-Pauline origin is proposed. However, proposed arguments contradict one another and present a stripped gear of logic. Justyn Martyr (A.D. 100-165), Irenæus (A.D. 98-195), Clemens of Alexandria (A.D. 155-216), and Tertullian (A.D. 150-220), all refer to this Epistle in their writings.
Dating of First Thessalonians is the most certain of all Paul’s Epistles because of a Gallio inscription (again refer to Introductory Notes on First Epistle to The Thessalonians, p. 538). Paul makes two references to an earlier Epistle to the Thessalonians (2:2,15). So Second Epistle to The Thessalonians was written shortly after the First Epistle in early to mid A.D. 51.
The Purpose of Paul is to correct the teaching that the Day of The Lord had come, which teaching arose from a forged letter or from false reports that Paul believed it (2:2) and to clarify the doctrine of The Lord’s coming. The Day of The Lord cannot come until after the Apostasy takes place and the Man of Sin, The Anti-God (2:4), The Beast out of the Sea (Rev. 13:1-8) is revealed (2:3).
Characteristics of Second Thessalonians is eschatological and correctional (correction of eschatology and of the behavior of the Thessalonians).
Every chapter in both First and Second Thessalonians refers to the second coming of The Christ. The Rapture of the Church must be clearly distinguished from the Revelation of The Lord Jesus Christ in the Day of The Lord. In the Rapture of the Church , which comes first, The Lord Jesus Christ comes in the air for His Church (1 Thes. 4:13-18). In the Revelation of The Lord Jesus Christ. He comes to the Earth with His Church to set up His Millennial Kingdom.
The Book may be outlined as follows:
I. The Day of The Lord and the Judgment of the Ungodly (1:1-12).
II. The Day of The Lord and the Man of Sin (the Anti-God) (2:1-17).
III. The Day of The Lord and the Responsibility of the Godly (3:1-18).