The writer to Timothy also was the Apostle Paul, whom God used to write fourteen New Testament Books (see Notes on First Thessalonians, page 536).
The recipient is Timothy, son of a Greek father and a godly Jewish mother, Eunice and grandmother, Lois (2 Tim. 1:5). It is assumed he was converted under Paul's ministry at Lústrah, Lukah-ohnéeh in Asia minor on his first missionary journey (Acts 14:8-20). After arriving there, Paul took him along on his second missionary journey (Acts 16:1-4). He was at Ephesus with Paul during his three years there (Acts 20:31) on his third journey (Acts 19:22). He was Paul's faithful, reliable companion and fellow servant while Paul was in prison in Rome (Phil. 2:19-23). His name occurs in all four groups of Paul's Epistles.
Internal evidence to Paul's authorship is clear both by the accepted title, that bears his name, and the text. He identifies himself in his opening greeting (1:1), again in his identification as the one who begot Timothy, calling him his own (legitimate) son (child) in the Faith of Christ (1:2), and later in his testimony as to his past and calling (1:12-16; 2:7). To deny his authorship is to deny inerrant, infallible, plenary, verbal inspiration (see Introduction p. xiii).
External evidence comes from the writings of the "Church fathers" (patristic tradition of the early Church). The Muratorian Canon (A.D. 160- 200): "For the Epistles of Paul . . . he wrote to not more than seven churches, . . . He wrote besides these . . . two to Timothy. These were written in personal affection; but they have been hallowed by being held in honor by the Catholic Church for the regulation of church discipline." There is no contradictory evidence found in the early Church writings, but Paul's authorship was an accepted fact and never doubted until the 19th century.
Dating of 1 Timothy is determined by the fact that Paul had been in prison at Rome from spring A.D. 61-63 during which time Ephesians (1:1), Philippians (1:1), Colossians (1:1), and Feelßymon (1:1) all were written, (cf. Notes on Philippians, p. 518). Hebrews also was written in A.D. 63. Paul anticipated an early release (Phil. 2:23,24; Phile. 22; Heb. 13:19,23). After Paul's release in spring of A.D. 63, He and his companions went first to Mahkehdohnée-ah (Phil. 2:24), then on to Kohlohssaí (Colosse), Asia Minor (Phile. 22) as intended. He left Timothy at Ephesus (1 Tim. 1:3), while he went, via Crete where he left Téetohs (Tit. 1:5), then back to Mahkehdohnée-ah where he wrote 1 Timothy in the summer of A.D. 65.
The Purpose of Paul is to encourage Timothy to fulfill the ministry of combatting heresy previously predicted (Acts 20:28-30), the error of Jewish legalism, and Gnostic fables which began to submerge the truth Paul taught.
Characteristics include: personal, exhortative, and didactic.
The Book may be outlined as follows:
THE CHARGE TO TIMOTHY
I. Regarding the Faith (1:1-20). V. Regarding the Rich (6:9-19).
II. Regarding Prayer and Priority (2:1-15). VI. Regarding Timothy himself
III. Regarding Elders and Deacons (3:1-16). (6:20,21).
IV. Regarding Timothy's Own Ministry (4:1-6:8).