The writer of this Epistle was the Apostle Peter (1:1), to whom The Lord Jesus Christ gave the keys to the Kingdom of Heaven (Mt. 16:18,19) opening the door of the Gospel to both Jews (Acts 2:1-41) and Gentiles (Acts 10:1-48) and whom God used as apostle to the circumcision (Gal. 2:7,8). He also is the writer of Second Peter.
Internal evidence to Peter's authorship is clear by the accepted title that bears his name and his opening salutation (1:1). To deny authorship is to deny inerrant, infallible, plenary, verbal inspiration. Numerous vocabulary words used can also be traced to Peter's sermons and testimony in Acts chapters 2,3, and 10 and in the words The Lord Jesus spoke in Peter's presence. Also in his second Epistle, Peter claimed: to write this Epistle (2 Pet. 3:1); and to be eye witness to Christ's majesty on the Mt. of Transfiguration (2 Pet. 1:16-18).
External evidence comes from the Muratorian Canon (A.D. 160-200): ‘‘We receive also . . . that of Peter which [foot note inserted] . . .A probable emendation reads ‘and one epistle only of Peter; a second is extant.''' Many of the church fathers quote from 1 Peter or refer to it. Origen wrote that it was accepted by all as genuine. And Eusebius placed it among universally acknowledged canonical Scriptures.
Dating of this Epistle is difficult because little is known of Peter's whereabouts after late Autumn A.D. 49 when he attended the first Church Council at Jerusalem (Acts 15:1-30). Then too, Máhrkohs (Mark) was at Rome with Paul in A.D. 62 (Phlm. 23; Col. 4:10). Then in the summer of A.D. 68, he was in Asia minor (Ephesus?) where Timothy was to get him and bring him to Paul in Rome (2 Tim. 4:11). So Máhrkohs could have traveled with Paul to Asia minor in late A.D. 64 and either met Peter there and went with him, or later traveled on to Bahbuln (5:13) to be with Peter when he wrote this Epistle between late A.D. 65-66. It should be noted that the symbolic use of Babylon as meaning Rome did not come about for at least 35 years after Peter wrote his First Catholic or General Epistle. It was first used by John when he wrote Revelation. So the proposal that Peter wrote from Rome is based upon Allegorical interpretation and violates historical, grammatical, contextual, cultural, literal interpretation
The destination of this Epistle is the Jewish Christians of the Dispersion scattered throughout Asia Minor (1:1). The provinces are listed clockwise from East to West indicating the author was in the East at the time of writing.
The Purpose of Peter in this Epistle is to entreat and to encourage, with the hope of glory, the Hebrew Christians in Asia Minor, who are suffering persecution from their own countrymen.
Characteristics include: exhortative, encouraging, and hopeful. There are seven similes for The God's people in relationship to The God: as children of obedience (1:14); as new-born babies (2:2); as absolutely living stones (2:5); as sojourners and pilgrims (2:11); as free ones from bondage (2:18); as bondslaves of God (2:16); and as sheep (2:25).
The Book may be outlined as follows:
I. The Doctrinal Prologue (1:1-12).
II. The Devotional Portion (1:13-5:9) -- Exhortations concerning:
A. Sanctification (1:10-4:21); D. Elders (5:1-4);
B. Submission (2:11-3:12); E. Service (5:1-6:20);
C. Suffering (3:13-4:19); F. All (5:5-9).
III. The Definitive Pronouncement (closing remarks) (5:10-14).